Occupational sex segregation and its consequences for the (re-)production of gender inequalities in the German labor market


Dr. Corinna Kleinert, IAB (Institute for Employment Research), Nürnberg
Prof. Dr. Kathrin Leuze, Leibniz Universität Hannover

Research staff:

Dörthe Gatermann, Leibniz Universität Hannover
Ann-Christin Hausmann, IAB (Institute for Employment Research), Nürnberg

Project summary:

In Germany, occupations are the structuring principle connecting the education system with the labour market and are thus considered important institutions for shaping employment histories. Yet empirical research has shown that male and female-dominated occupations come along with unequal employment opportunities. In this project, we therefore study the relevance of occupational sex segregation for the (re)production of gender inequalities in the German labour market. We approach the consequences of occupational sex segregation at an occupational and an individual level. In the first step, we analyse whether there is a relationship between occupational sex segregation and other occupational aspects, such as wage levels, proportion of part-time work, or qualification requirements. In the second step, we ask how these occupational features shape male and female employment histories and thereby contribute to the (re-)production of gender inequalities. Empirically, we first generate an occupational panel based on SIAB and Microcensus data to investigate long-term trends of occupational sex segregation and its causal relation with other occupational characteristics. These findings are then used to identify occupational characteristics that are relevant for generating gender inequality in employment histories. The respective occupational indicators are merged with NEPS Starting Cohort 6 data to examine their effects on different stages of female and male employment biographies, such as labour market entries, subsequent employment mobility, employment interruptions, and returns to work.

Articles with scientific quality assurance:

  • Althaber, A., Leuze, K. (2020): Der Einfluss der beruflichen Geschlechtersegregation und beruflicher Arbeitszeitarrangements auf Teilzeitarbeit. Gleiche Übergangsbedingungen für Frauen und Männer? Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 72, 317-349. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-020-00666-3.
  • Bächmann, A.-C., Gatermann, D. (2017) The duration of family-related employment interruptions – the role of occupational characteristics. Journal for Labour Market Research 50, 143–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12651-017-0226-4.
  • Hägglund, A.-E., Bächmann, A.-C. (2017) Fast Lane or Down the Drain? Does the Occupation Held Prior to Unemployment shape the Transition Back to Work? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 49 , 32-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2017.03.005.
  • Hausmann, A.-C., Kleinert, C., Leuze, K. (2015): Entwertung von Frauenberufen oder Entwertung von Frauen im Beruf? Eine Längsschnittanalyse zum Zusammenhang von beruflicher Geschlechtersegregation und Lohnentwicklung in Westdeutschland. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 67, 217–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-015-0304-y.
  • Leuze, K., Strauß, S. (2016): Why do occupations dominated by women pay less? How ‘female-typical’ work tasks and working time arrangements affect the gender wage gap among higher education graduates. Work, Employment and Society 30 , 802-820. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017015624402.

Other publications:

PhD Theses:

  • Anna Erika Hägglund, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Defense February 2019): From Educational Decisions to Labour Market Consequences. Understanding the Interrelation between Sex Segregation and Gender Specific Educational and Employment Trajectories. https://doi.org/10.15488/10374 [https://www.repo.uni-hannover.de/handle/123456789/10448
  • Ann-Christin Bächmann, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (Defense July 2019): Berufliche Geschlechtersegregation und Geschlechterungleichheiten auf dem deutschen Arbeitsmarkt.